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TPP Confidential – Intellectual property rights/Intellectual property (7)
13/11/2015

{Section H: Enforcement} Article QQ.H.1: {General Enforcement}

1. Each Party shall ensure that enforcement procedures as specified in this section, are available under its law107 so as to permit effective action against any act of infringement of intellectual property rights covered by this Chapter, including expeditious remedies to prevent infringements and remedies which constitute a deterrent to future infringements. These procedures shall be applied in such a manner as to avoid the creation of barriers to legitimate trade and to provide for safeguards against their abuse108.

2. Each Party confirms that the enforcement procedures set forth in Articles {QQ.H.4 and QQ.H.5 (civil and provisional measures) and QQ.H.7 (criminal measures)} shall be available to the same extent with respect to acts of trademark, copyright or related rights infringement in the digital environment.

3. Each Party shall ensure that its procedures concerning the enforcement of intellectual property rights shall be fair and equitable. These procedures shall not be unnecessarily complicated or costly, or entail unreasonable time-limits or unwarranted delays.

4. This Section does not create any obligation:

  1. (a)  to put in place a judicial system for the enforcement of intellectual property rights distinct from that for the enforcement of law in general, nor does it affect the capacity of each Party to enforce their law in general; or
  2. (b)  with respect to the distribution of resources as between the enforcement of intellectual property rights and the enforcement of law in general.

5. In implementing the provisions of this Section in its intellectual property system, each Party shall take into account the need for proportionality between the seriousness of the intellectual property infringement, and the applicable remedies and penalties, as well as the interests of third parties.

Article QQ.H.2: {Presumptions}

1. In civil, criminal, and if applicable, administrative proceedings involving copyright or related rights, each Party shall provide:

  1. (a)  for a presumption109 that, in the absence of proof to the contrary, the person whose name is indicated in the usual manner110 as the author, performer, producer of the work, performance, or phonogram, or as applicable, the publisher is the designated right holder in such work, performance, or phonogram; and
  2. (b)  for a presumption that, in the absence of proof to the contrary, the copyright or related right subsists in such subject matter.

2. In connection with the commencement of a civil, administrative or criminal enforcement proceeding involving a registered trademark that has been substantively examined by the competent authority, each Party shall provide that such a trademark be considered prima facie valid.

3. In connection with the commencement of a civil or administrative enforcement proceeding involving a patent that has been substantively examined and granted111 by the competent authority, each Party shall provide that each claim in the patent be considered

prima facie to satisfy the applicable criteria of patentability in the territory of the

Party112,113.
Article QQ.H.3: {Enforcement Practices With Respect to Intellectual Property

Rights}

1. Each Party shall provide that final judicial decisions and administrative rulings of general application pertaining to the enforcement of intellectual property rights shall preferably be in writing and state any relevant findings of fact and the reasoning or the legal basis on which the decisions and rulings are based. Each Party shall also provide that such decisions and rulings shall be published114 or, where publication is not practicable, otherwise made available to the public, in a national language in such a manner as to enable interested persons and Parties to become acquainted with them.

2. Each Party recognizes the importance of collecting and analyzing statistical data and other relevant information concerning intellectual property rights infringements as well as collecting information on best practices to prevent and combat infringements.

3. Each Party shall publish or otherwise make available to the public information on its efforts to provide effective enforcement of intellectual property rights in its civil, administrative and criminal systems, such as statistical information that the Party may collect for such purposes.

Article QQ.H.4: {Civil and Administrative Procedures and Remedies}
1. Each Party shall make available to rights holders115 civil judicial procedures concerning the enforcement of any intellectual property right covered in this Chapter.

2. Each Party shall provide116 that in civil judicial proceedings its judicial authorities have the authority at least to order the infringer to pay the right holder damages adequate to compensate for the injury the right holder has suffered because of an infringement of that person’s intellectual property right by an infringer who knowingly, or with reasonable grounds to know, engaged in infringing activity.

3. At least in cases of copyright or related rights infringement and trademark counterfeiting, each Party shall provide that, in civil judicial proceedings, its judicial authorities have the authority to order the infringer, at least as described in paragraph 2, to pay the right holder the infringer’s profits that are attributable to the infringement117.

4. In determining the amount of damages under paragraph 2, its judicial authorities shall have the authority to consider, inter alia, any legitimate measure of value the right holder submits, which may include lost profits, the value of the infringed goods or services measured by the market price, or the suggested retail price.

5. Each Party shall provide that its judicial authorities have the authority to order injunctive relief that conforms to the provisions of Article 44 of the TRIPS Agreement, inter alia, to prevent goods that involve the infringement of an intellectual property right under the law of the Party providing such relief from entering into the channels of commerce.

6. Each Party shall ensure that its judicial authorities shall have the authority to order a party at whose request measures were taken and who has abused enforcement procedures with regard to intellectual property rights including trademarks, geographical indications, patents, copyright and related rights, and industrial designs, to provide the party wrongfully enjoined or restrained adequate compensation for the injury suffered because of such abuse. The judicial authorities shall also have the authority to order the applicant to pay the defendant expenses, which may include appropriate attorney’s fees.

7. In civil judicial proceedings, with respect to infringement of copyright or related rights protecting works, phonograms, and performances, each Party shall establish or maintain a system that provides for one or more of the following:

  1. (a)  pre-established damages, which shall be available upon the election of the right holder; or
  2. (b)  additional damages118.

8. In civil judicial proceedings, with respect to trademark counterfeiting, each Party shall also establish or maintain a system that provides for one or more of the following:

  1. (a)  pre-established damages, which shall be available upon the election of the right holder; or
  2. (b)  additional damages119.

9. Pre-established damages under paragraphs (7) and (8) shall be set out in an amount that would be sufficient to compensate the right holder for the harm caused by the infringement, and with a view to deterring future infringements.

10. In awarding additional damages under paragraphs (7) and (8), judicial authorities shall have the authority to award such additional damages as they consider appropriate, having regard to all relevant matters, including the nature of the infringing conduct and the need to deter similar infringements in the future.

11. Each Party shall provide that its judicial authorities, where appropriate, have the authority to order, at the conclusion of civil judicial proceedings concerning infringement of at least copyright or related rights, patents, and trademarks, that the prevailing party be awarded payment by the losing party of court costs or fees and appropriate attorney ́s fees, or any other expenses as provided for under that Party ́s law.

  1. Each Party shall provide that in civil judicial proceedings:
    1. (a)  At least with respect to pirated copyright goods and counterfeit trademark goods, each Party shall provide that, in civil judicial proceedings, at the right holder’s request, its judicial authorities have the authority to order that such infringing goods be destroyed, except in exceptional circumstances, without compensation of any sort.
    2. (b)  Each Party shall further provide that its judicial authorities have the authority to order that materials and implements that have been used in the manufacture or creation of such infringing goods, be, without undue delay and without compensation of any sort, destroyed or disposed of outside the channels of commerce in such a manner as to minimize the risks of further infringements.
    3. (c)  In regard to counterfeit trademark goods, the simple removal of the trademark unlawfully affixed shall not be sufficient, other than in exceptional circumstances, to permit the release of goods into the channels of commerce.
  2. Without prejudice to its law governing privilege, the protection of confidentiality

of information sources, or the processing of personal data, each Party shall provide that, in civil judicial proceedings concerning the enforcement of intellectual property rights, its judicial authorities have the authority, upon a justified request of the right holder, to order the infringer or, in the alternative, the alleged infringer, to provide to the right holder or to the judicial authorities, at least for the purpose of collecting evidence, relevant information

as provided for in its applicable laws and regulations that the infringer or alleged infringer possesses or controls. Such information may include information regarding any person involved in any aspect of the infringement or alleged infringement and regarding the means of production or the channels of distribution of the infringing or allegedly infringing goods or services, including the identification of third persons alleged to be involved in the production and distribution of such goods or services and of their channels of distribution.

14. Each Party shall provide that in relation to a civil judicial proceeding concerning the enforcement of intellectual property rights, its judicial or other authorities have the authority to impose sanctions on a party, counsel, experts, or other persons subject to the court’s jurisdiction, for violation of judicial orders concerning the protection of confidential information produced or exchanged in that proceeding.

15. To the extent that any civil remedy can be ordered as a result of administrative procedures on the merits of a case, each Party shall provide that such procedures conform to principles equivalent in substance to those set out in this Article (civil and administrative proceedings).

16. In the event that a Party’s judicial or other authorities appoint technical or other experts in civil proceedings concerning the enforcement of intellectual property rights and require that the parties to the litigation bear the costs of such experts, that Party should seek to ensure that such costs are reasonable and related appropriately, inter alia, to the quantity and nature of work to be performed and do not unreasonably deter recourse to such proceedings.

17. In civil judicial proceedings concerning the acts described in Article QQ.G.10 (TPMs) and Article QQ.G.12 (RMI), each Party shall provide that its judicial authorities shall, at least, have the authority to120:

  1. (a)  impose provisional measures, including seizure or other taking into custody of devices and products suspected of being involved in the prohibited activity;
  2. (b)  order the type of damages available for copyright infringement, as provided under its regime in accordance with Article QQ.H.4121;
  3. (c)  order court costs, fees, or expenses as provided for under Article QQ.H.4.11; and
  4. (d)  order the destruction of devices and products found to be involved in the prohibited activity.

A Party may provide that damages shall not be available against a nonprofit library, archives, educational institution, museum, or public noncommercial broadcasting entity

that sustains the burden of proving that such entity was not aware or had no reason to believe that its acts constituted a prohibited activity.

Article QQ.H.5: {Provisional Measures}

1. Each Party’s authorities shall act on requests for relief in respect of any intellectual property right inaudita altera parte expeditiously in accordance with the Party’s judicial rules.

2. Each Party shall provide that its judicial authorities have the authority to require the applicant, with respect to provisional measures in respect of any intellectual property right, to provide any reasonably available evidence in order to satisfy themselves with a sufficient degree of certainty that the applicant’s right is being infringed or that such infringement is imminent, and to order the applicant to provide a security or equivalent assurance set at a level sufficient to protect the defendant and to prevent abuse. Such security or equivalent assurance shall not unreasonably deter recourse to such procedures.

3. In civil judicial proceedings concerning copyright or related rights infringement and trademark counterfeiting, each Party shall provide that its judicial authorities shall have the authority to order the seizure or other taking into custody of suspected infringing goods, materials and implements relevant to the infringement, and, at least for trademark counterfeiting, documentary evidence relevant to the infringement.

Article QQ.H.6: {Special Requirements related to Border Measures}122

1. Each Party shall provide for applications to suspend the release of, or to detain, any suspect counterfeit or confusingly similar trademark, or pirated copyright goods that are imported123 into the territory of the Party.

4. Each Party shall provide that any right holder initiating procedures for its competent authorities124 to suspend release of suspected counterfeit or confusingly similar trademark goods, or pirated copyright goods125 into free circulation is required to provide adequate

evidence to satisfy the competent authorities that under the law of the Party providing the procedures there is prima facie an infringement of the right holder’s intellectual property right and to supply sufficient information that may reasonably be expected to be within the right holder’s knowledge to make the suspected goods reasonably recognizable by its competent authorities. The requirement to provide such information shall not unreasonably deter recourse to these procedures.

5. Each Party shall provide that its competent authorities have the authority to require a right holder initiating procedures to suspend the release of suspected counterfeit or confusingly similar trademark goods, or pirated copyright goods, to provide a reasonable security or equivalent assurance sufficient to protect the defendant and the competent authorities and to prevent abuse. Each Party shall provide that such security or equivalent assurance shall not unreasonably deter recourse to these procedures. A Party may provide that such security may be in the form of a bond conditioned to hold the defendant harmless from any loss or damage resulting from any suspension of the release of goods in the event the competent authorities determine that the article is not an infringing good.

6. Without prejudice to a Party’s laws pertaining to privacy or the confidentiality of information, where its competent authorities have detained or suspended the release of goods that are suspected of being counterfeit trademark goods or pirated copyright goods, a Party may provide that its competent authorities have the authority to inform the right holder without undue delay of the names and addresses of the consignor, exporter, consignee, or importer, a description of the goods, quantity of the goods, and, if known, the country of origin of the goods126. Where a Party does not provide such authority to its competent authorities when suspect goods are detained or suspended from release, it shall provide at least in cases of imported goods, its competent authorities with the authority to provide the foregoing information to the right holder normally within 30 days127 of the seizure or determination that the goods are counterfeit trademark or pirated copyright goods.

7. Each Party shall provide that its competent authorities may initiate border measures ex officio128 with respect to goods under customs control129 that are:

(a) imported;

  1. (b)  destined for export130; or
  2. (c)  in-transit131,132,

TPP Negotiations IP Group Intellectual Property [Rights] Chapter 05 Oct 2015

and that are suspected of being counterfeit trademark goods, or pirated copyright goods.

8. Each Party shall adopt or maintain a procedure by which its competent authorities may determine, within a reasonable period of time after the initiation of the procedures described under Article QQ.H.6.(1), QQ.H.6.6(a) and QQ.H.6.6(b)and if applicable QQ.H.6.6(c), whether the suspect goods infringe an intellectual property right133. Where a Party provides administrative procedures for the determination of an infringement, it may also provide its authorities with the authority to impose administrative penalties or sanctions, which may include fines or the seizure of the infringing goods, following a determination that the goods are infringing.

9. Each Party shall provide that its competent authorities have the authority to order the destruction of goods following a determination that the goods are infringing. In cases where such goods are not destroyed, each Party shall ensure that, except in exceptional circumstances, such goods are disposed of outside the channels of commerce in such a manner as to avoid any harm to the right holder. In regard to counterfeit trademark goods, the simple removal of the trademark unlawfully affixed shall not be sufficient, other than in exceptional cases, to permit the release of the goods into the channels of commerce.

10. Where a Party establishes or assesses, in connection with the procedures described in this Article, an application fee, storage fee, or destruction fee, such fee shall not be set at an amount that unreasonably deters recourse to these procedures.

11. Each Party shall include in the application of this Article goods of a commercial nature sent in small consignments. A Party may exclude from the application of this Article small quantities of goods of a non-commercial nature contained in travelers’ personal luggage134.

Article QQ.H.7: {Criminal Procedures and Penalties}

1. Each Party shall provide for criminal procedures and penalties to be applied at least in cases of willful trademark counterfeiting or copyright or related rights piracy on a commercial scale. In respect of willful copyright or related rights piracy, “on a commercial scale” includes at least:

  1. (a)  acts carried out for commercial advantage or financial gain; and
  2. (b)  significant acts, not carried out for commercial advantage or financial gain, that have a substantial prejudicial impact on the interests of the copyright or related rights owner in relation to the marketplace135,136.

2. Each Party shall treat willful importation or exportation of counterfeit trademark goods or pirated copyright goods on a commercial scale as unlawful activities subject to criminal penalties137.

3. Each Party shall provide for criminal procedures and penalties to be applied in cases of willful importation138 and domestic use, in the course of trade and on a commercial scale, of labels or packaging139:

  1. (a)  to which a mark has been applied without authorization which is identical to, or cannot be distinguished from, a trademark registered in its territory; and
  2. (b)  which are intended to be used in the course of trade on goods or in relation to services which are identical to goods or services for which such trademark is registered.

4. Recognizing the need to address the unauthorized copying140 of a cinematographic work from a performance in a movie theatre that causes significant harm to a right holder in the market for that work, and recognizing the need to deter such harm, each Party shall

adopt or maintain measures, which shall at a minimum include but need not be limited to, appropriate criminal procedures and penalties.

5. With respect to the offenses for which this Article requires the Parties to provide for criminal procedures and penalties, Parties shall ensure that criminal liability for aiding and abetting is available under its law.

6. With respect to the offences described in Article QQ.H.7 (1)-(5) above, each Party shall provide:

  1. (a)  penalties that include sentences of imprisonment as well as monetary fines sufficiently high to provide a deterrent to future acts of infringement, consistently with the level of penalties applied for crimes of a corresponding gravity141;
  2. (b)  that its judicial authorities shall have the authority, when determining penalties, to account for the seriousness of the circumstances, which may include those that involve threats to, or effects on, health or safety142;
  3. (c)  that its judicial or other competent authorities shall have the authority to order the seizure of suspected counterfeit trademark goods or pirated copyright goods, any related materials and implements used in the commission of the alleged offense, documentary evidence relevant to the alleged offense and assets derived from, or obtained through the alleged infringing activity;Where a Party requires the identification of items subject to seizure as a prerequisite for issuing any such judicial order, that Party shall not require the items to be described in greater detail than necessary to identify them for the purpose of seizure;
  4. (d)  that its judicial authorities shall have the authority to order the forfeiture, at least for serious offenses, of any assets derived from, or obtained through the infringing activity;
  5. (e)  that its judicial authorities shall have the authority to order the forfeiture or destruction of
    1. (i)  all counterfeit trademark goods or pirated copyright goods; and
    2. (ii)  materials and implements that have been predominantly used in the creation of pirated copyright goods or counterfeit trademark goods; and

      (iii) any other labels or packaging to which a counterfeit trademark has been applied and that have been used in the commission of the offense.

      In cases where counterfeit trademark goods and pirated copyright goods are not destroyed, the judicial or other competent authorities shall ensure that, except in exceptional circumstances, such goods shall be disposed of outside the channels of commerce in such a manner as to avoid causing any harm to the right holder. Each Party shall further provide that forfeiture or destruction under this subparagraph and subparagraph (c) shall occur without compensation of any kind to the defendant;

      1. (f)  that its judicial or other competent authorities shall have the authority to release or, in the alternative, provide access to, goods, material, implements, and other evidence held by the relevant authority to a right holder for civil143 infringement proceedings;
      2. (g)  that its competent authorities may act upon their own initiative to initiate a legal action without the need for a formal complaint by a private party or right holder144.

      7. With respect to the offences described in Article QQ.H.7 (1)-(5) above, a Party may provide that its judicial authorities have the authority to order the seizure or forfeiture of assets, or alternatively, a fine, the value of which corresponds to that of the assets derived from, or obtained directly or indirectly through, the infringing activity.

      Article QQ.H.8: {Trade Secrets}145,146

      1. In the course of ensuring effective protection against unfair competition as provided in Article 10bis of the Paris Convention, each Party shall ensure that natural and legal persons have the legal means to prevent trade secrets lawfully in their control from being disclosed to, acquired by, or used by others (including state commercial enterprises) without their consent in a manner contrary to honest commercial practices.147 As used in

      this Chapter, trade secrets encompass, at a minimum, undisclosed information as provided for in Article 39.2 of the TRIPS Agreement.

      2. Subject to Paragraph 3, Each Party shall provide for criminal procedures and penalties for one or more of the following:

      1. (a)  the unauthorized, willful access to a trade secret held in a computer system;
      2. (b)  the unauthorized, willful misappropriation of a trade secret, including bymeans of a computer system; or
      3. (c)  the fraudulent disclosure, or alternatively, the unauthorized and willful disclosure of a trade secret, including by means of a computer system.

      3. With respect to the acts referred to in Paragraph 2, a Party may, where appropriate, limit the availability of such criminal procedures, or limit the level of penalties available, to one or more of the following cases:

      1. (a)  the acts are for purposes of commercial advantage or financial gain;
      2. (b)  the acts are related to a product or service in national or internationalcommerce;
      3. (c)  the acts are intended to injure the owner of such trade secret;
      4. (d)  the acts are directed by or for the benefit of or in association with a foreign economic entity; or
      5. (e)  the acts are detrimental to a Party’s economic interests, international relations, or national defense or national security148.

      Article QQ.H.9: {Protection of Encrypted Program-Carrying Satellite and Cable Signals}

      1. Each Party shall make it a criminal offense to:

      (a) manufacture, assemble, modify149, import, export, sell, lease, or otherwise distribute a tangible or intangible device or system, knowing or having reason to know150 that the device or system meets at least one of the following conditions:

      (i) it is intended to be used to assist,

      1. (ii)  it is primarily of assistance, or
      2. (iii)  its principal function is solely to assist,

      in decoding an encrypted program-carrying satellite signal without the authorization of the lawful distributor151 of such signal152; and

      with respect to an encrypted program-carrying satellite signal, willfully:

      1. (i)  receive153 such a signal; or
      2. (ii)  further distribute154 such signal

      knowing that it has been decoded without the authorization of the lawful

      distributor of the signal.

      Without Prejudice

      2. Each Party shall provide for civil remedies for any person that holds an interest in an encrypted program carrying satellite signal or its content and who is injured by any activity described in paragraph 1.

      3. Each Party shall provide for criminal penalties or civil remedies155 for willfully:

      1. (a)  manufacturing or distributing equipment knowing that the equipment is intended to be used in the unauthorized reception of any encrypted program-carrying cable signal; and
      2. (b)  receiving, or assisting another to receive156, an encrypted program-carrying cable signal without authorization of the lawful distributor of the signal.

      Article QQ.H.11: {Government Use of Software}

      1. Each Party recognizes the importance of promoting the adoption of measures to enhance government awareness of respect for intellectual property rights and of the detrimental effects of intellectual property rights infringement.

2. Each Party shall adopt or maintain appropriate laws, regulations, policies, orders, government-issued guidelines, or administrative or executive decrees providing that its central government agencies use only non-infringing computer software protected by copyright and related rights, and if applicable, only use such computer software in a manner authorized by the relevant license. These measures shall apply to the acquisition and management of such software for government use157.

Section I: {Internet Service Providers}

1. The Parties recognize the importance of facilitating the continued development of legitimate online services operating as intermediaries and, in a manner consistent with Article 41 of the TRIPS Agreement, providing enforcement procedures that permit effective action by rights holders against copyright infringement158 covered under this Chapter that occurs in the online environment. Accordingly, each Party shall ensure that legal remedies are available for rights holders to address such infringement and shall establish or maintain appropriate safe harbors in respect of online services that are Internet Service Providers159. This framework of legal remedies and safe harbors shall include:

  1. (a)  legal incentives 160 for Internet Service Providers to cooperate with copyright owners to deter the unauthorized storage and transmission of copyrighted materials or, in the alternative, to take other action to deter the unauthorized storage and transmission of copyrighted materials; and
  2. (b)  limitations in its law that have the effect of precluding monetary relief against Internet Service Providers for copyright infringements that they do not control, initiate, or direct, and that take place through systems or networks controlled or operated by them or on their behalf161.

2. The limitations described in paragraph 1(b) shall include limitations in respect of the following functions:

  1. (a)  transmitting, routing, or providing connections for material without modification of its content162, or the intermediate and transient storage of such material done automatically in the course of such a technical process;
  2. (b)  caching carried out through an automated process;
  3. (c)  storage163, at the direction of a user, of material residing on a system ornetwork controlled or operated by or for the service provider164; and
  4. (d)  referring or linking users to an online location by using information locationtools, including hyperlinks and directories.

3. To facilitate effective action to address infringement, each Party shall prescribe in its law conditions for Internet Service Providers to qualify for the limitations described in paragraph 1(b), or alternatively, shall provide for circumstances under which Internet Service Providers do not qualify for the limitations described in paragraph 1(b)165,166:

(a) With respect to the functions referred to in paragraph 2(c) and 2(d) above, such conditions shall include a requirement for Internet service providers to expeditiously remove or disable access to material residing on their networks or systems upon obtaining actual knowledge of the infringement or becoming aware of facts or circumstances from which the infringement

is apparent, such as through receiving a notice167 of alleged infringement from the right holder or a person authorized to act on its behalf,

(b) An Internet Service Provider that removes or disables access to material in good faith pursuant to and consistent with sub-paragraph (a) shall be exempt from any liability for having done so, provided that it takes reasonable steps in advance or promptly after to notify the person whose material is removed or disabled168.

4. Where a system for counter-notices is provided under a Party’s law, and where material has been removed or access has been disabled in accordance with paragraph 3, that Party shall require that the Internet Service Provider restore the material subject to a counter-notice, unless the person giving the original notice seeks judicial relief within a reasonable period of time.

5. Each Party shall ensure that monetary remedies are available in its legal system against any person who makes a knowing material misrepresentation in a notice or counter- notice that causes injury to any interested party169 as a result of an Internet Service Provider relying on the misrepresentation.

6. Eligibility for the limitations in paragraph 1 may not be conditioned on the Internet Service Provider monitoring its service or affirmatively seeking facts indicating infringing activity.

7. Each Party shall provide procedures, whether judicial or administrative, in accordance with that Party’s legal system, and consistent with principles of due process and privacy, enabling a copyright owner who has made a legally sufficient claim of copyright infringement to obtain expeditiously from an Internet Service Provider information in the provider’s possession identifying the alleged infringer, where such information is sought for the purpose of protecting or enforcing such copyright.

8. It is understood that the failure of an Internet Service Provider to qualify for the limitations in paragraph 1 does not itself result in liability. Moreover, this Article is without prejudice to the availability of other limitations and exceptions to copyright, or any other defenses under a Party’s legal system.

9. The Parties recognize the importance, in implementing their obligations under this Article, of taking into account the impacts on rights holders and Internet Service Providers.

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